Facts About Mars – The Red Planet

Facts About Mars

Most Interesting Facts About Mars – The Red Planet

Mars is the second smallest planet in the solar system after mercury. And it is the fourth planet from the sun.

SUNSETS ON MARS ARE BLUE

Mars is also referred to as the “Red Planet” because it has high content of iron oxide which makes it appear reddish.

Mars has a thin atmosphere.

If we compare the density of Mars with that of the Earth’s, we would find that it is 100 times less dense than Earth.

Mars has low atmospheric pressure on its surface which is the reason why liquid water cannot exist on its surface for long.

Mars takes twice the time Earth takes to complete a full revolution around the sun.

OLYMPUS MONS — THE TALLEST MOUNTAIN IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM — IS ON MARS.

The name of the month March also derives from Mars.

Mars is being explored for over four decades now because it is considered as a favorable place for human existence. And the signs of water on the planet has supported the belief that human life can exist on this red planet.

Many Hollywood films have been produced with Mars as their subject including: Flight to Mars – 1951, The Angry Red Planet – 1959 and the famous John Carter – 2012 and many more.

Mars can be spotted with the nak eye during the night time from the surface of earth, thanks to its reddish appearance. The apparent size and brightness of the planet varies depending on the proximity of the planet to the Earth.

Worm-like aliens have been recently spotted on Mars surface by NASA JPL’s Mars orbiter. This spacecraft has been orbiting Mars for the past 11 years.

Mars is in the news a lot these days, with last week’s successful landing of the robot rover Curiosity on the surface of the Red Planet.

People have long been fascinated by Mars, and the idea of sending people to the planet has been a source of science fiction and science exploration for decades. Part of the interest is because scientists believe that 3.5 billion years ago, the climate of Mars may have been warm and wet, and might have supported life.

Facts About Mars

1. Color: It’s called the Red Planet because its iron-rich dust gives it landscape a rusty-red color.

2. Diet planet: Mars’s gravity is 38 percent of Earth’s. So if you weigh 60 pounds here, you’d weigh about 23 pounds there.

3. Climate change: At the equator, Mars is a comfortable 80 degrees Fahrenheit, but the temperature at its poles can get down to 199 degrees below zero.

4. In the air: Mars’s atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide with traces of nitrogen and argon. Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and other gases.

5. Longer days: A Martian day is about 40 minutes longer than a day on Earth.

MORE FACTS ABOUT MARS

Facts About Mars

A MARTIAN YEAR LASTS JUST UNDER TWO EARTH YEARS

It takes 687 Earth days for the Red Planet make its way around the Sun. A Mars day—called a sol—lasts 24.6 hours, which would be a nuisance for the circadian rhythms of astronauts (but not as bad as a day on Venus, which lasts 5832 hours).

IT’S NOT AS HOT AS IT MIGHT LOOK

Mars looks desert-hot—New Mexico with hazy skies, red because of its iron oxide soil—but is actually very cold, with a blistering hot sol being 70°F, and a cold sol a brisk -225°F. Its dust storms can be huge; in 2018, one storm grew so large that it encompassed the entire planet for more than a month. (You can see a similarly huge dust storm in the image above.)

MARS IS MUCH SMALLER THAN EARTH

Compared to Earth, Mars is a tiny Styrofoam ball, with a diameter just over half of ours and one-tenth of our mass. Its gravity will be an absolute nightmare for future colonists, at .38 that of their native planet. (That means a person weighing 100 pounds here would weigh just 38 pounds on Mars.)

AND ITS ATMOSPHERE IS MOSTLY CARBON DIOXIDE

You won’t want to get a breath of fresh air on Mars unless you’re trying to suffocate: Its atmosphere is 95.32 percent carbon dioxide, with a little nitrogen and argon thrown in. (Earth’s atmosphere, by contrast, is mostly nitrogen and oxygen.) When you do try to take that single, hopeless breath, the tears on your eyeballs, saliva in your mouth, and water in your lungs will immediately evaporate. You won’t die right away, but you’ll probably want to.

IT HAS TWO MOONS, BOTH WITH BETTER NAMES THAN OURS

They’re called Phobos and Deimos, which translate to Fear and Dread, respectively. They’re shaped like potatoes and don’t exactly fill the evening sky: Standing on the Martian surface, Phobos would appear to be about one-third the size of Earth’s moon; Deimos would look like a bright star.

Future human Martians will have to enjoy Phobos while they can. The tidal forces of Mars are tearing Phobos apart; in 50 million years, the big potato will disintegrate.

In the meantime, Phobos is one of the stepping stones NASA plans to take on its journey to Mars. No part of human exploration of the Red Planet is easy, and before we land on Mars (and then have to figure out how to launch back into space and somehow get back to Earth), it’s vastly easier to land on Phobos, do a little reconnaissance, and then take off and return home. As a bonus, on the journey to Phobos, astronauts can bring along hardware necessary for eventual Martian settlement, making the ride a lot easier for the next astronauts. These are the top Facts About Mars

MARS IS HOME TO THE TALLEST MOUNTAIN IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

The tallest mountain on Earth, Mount Everest, is 29,029 feet tall. Olympus Mons on Mars is over 72,000 feet in height, making it the tallest mountain by far on any planet in the solar system.

Olympus Mons isn’t the only extraordinary Mars feature: Mountaineers might also want to check out NASA’s trail map for hiking the famous Face on Mars. If canyons are more your speed, you’ll want to visit Valles Marineris. It is the size of North America and, at its bottom, four miles deep. (In the solar system, only Earth’s Atlantic Ocean is deeper.) Once Earth’s ice caps finish melting, you can always visit the ones on Mars. (If you have a telescope, you can easily see them; they are the planet’s most distinctive features visible from your backyard.)

THE IDEA OF MARTIANS GOES BACK OVER A CENTURY

That’s partially because of popular fiction (War of the Worlds, the 1897 novel by H.G. Wells, sees a Martian invasion force invade England) and partially because of Percival Lowell, the famed astronomer who wrote prolifically on the canals he thought he was observing through his telescope, and why they might be necessary for the survival of the Martian people. (Mars was drying up.) Some facts about mars

Though it’s easy to dismiss such conclusions today, at the time Lowell not only popularized space science like few others, but left behind the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona—one of the oldest observatories in America and the place where Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto.

IF THERE ARE MARTIANS, THEY ARE MICROBES

Today, scientists work tirelessly to unlock the complex geologic history of Mars, to determine whether life exists there today, or did long ago. “We think that Mars was most globally conducive to life around 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago,” Runyon tells Mental Floss. “In the Mars geologic history, that’s the end of the Noachian and toward the beginning of the Hesperian epochs.” There may once have been a hemispheric ocean on Mars. Later, the world might have alternated between being wet and dry, with an ocean giving way to massive crater lakes. Where there’s water, there’s a good chance of life.

“If we found life on Mars—either extinct or current—that’s really interesting,” says Runyon, “but more interesting than that, is whether this life arose independently on Mars, separate from Earth.” It is conceivable that meteorite impacts on Earth blasted life-bearing rocks into space and eventually to the Martian surface: “A second life emergence on Mars is not just a geological question. It’s a biogeochemical question. We know that Mars is habitable, but we haven’t answered the question of whether it had, or has, life.”

NASA SPENDS A LOT OF TIME OUT THERE

Mars hasn’t hurt for missions in recent years, though scientists now warn of an exploration desert beyond 2020. But that doesn’t mean we humans don’t have eyes on the planet. Presently in orbit around the planet are the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which images and scans the planet; MAVEN, which studies its atmosphere; Mars Express, the European Space Agency’s first Mars mission; MOM, the first Mars mission by the Indian Space Research Organization; the ESA’s ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, which is searching for methane in the Martian atmosphere; and Odyssey, which studies Mars for water and ice signatures, and acts as a communications relay for vehicles on the ground.

Rolling around on the Martian surface are Curiosity and Opportunity—NASA missions both—which study Martian geology. Though the Russians and Europeans have tried mightily to do so, NASA is the only space agency to successfully land spacecraft on the Martian surface (seven times).

In November 2018, the InSight mission will land on Mars, where it will study the planet’s interior. In 2020, NASA will land the Mars 2020 rover; where Curiosity studies Mars for signs of habitability, Mars 2020 will look for inhabitants.

“It is going to collect samples that will hopefully be brought back to Earth,” says Runyon. “The three landing sites selected for Mars 2020 are Northeast Syrtis, Jezero Crater, and Columbia Hills within Gusev Crater, which is where the dead rover Spirit is currently sitting. Each of these sites is a hydrothermal environment dating from the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. These are some of the most perfect places to look for past signs of Martian life, and can help answer the question of whether life had a second genesis on Mars.”

MARS IS CHANGING, BUT NOBODY KNOWS WHY

“Most people don’t realize how active Mars is,” Harrison tells Mental Floss. “Other planets aren’t just these dead worlds that are frozen in time outside of our own. There are actually things happening there right now.” Imagery from the HiRISE and Context Camera instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed such events as avalanches, sand dune erosion, and recurring slope lineae (flowing Martian saltwater). These are some facts about mars.

Things are moving, but it’s not always clear why. “There’s a lot of material that has been eroded away,” says Harrison. “We have entire provinces of the planet that look like they’ve been completely buried and then exhumed. And that’s a lot of material. The big question is, where did it all go? And what process eroded it all away?” Curiosity might help answer the question, but to really understand the processes and history of the fourth rock from the Sun, we’re going to need to send geologists in spacesuits. “You can’t replace human intuition with a rover,” Harrison says. “Looking at a picture on your computer is not the same as standing there and looking around at the context, stratigraphic columns, being able to pick up the rocks and manipulate them, take a hammer to things. So once humans land on the surface, it’ll be kind of like the difference between what we knew about Mars from Viking and Mars Global Surveyor and then the revolution between Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Our view of what we think happened on Mars is going to completely change, and we’ll find out that a lot of what we thought we knew was wrong.”

These were the top amazing facts about mars

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